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Cambridgeshire

Cambridgeshire lies in eastern England. In 1974 the ancient county of Huntingdonshire was incorporated into the county as was the Isle of Ely and the Soke of Peterborough, an area formerly part of Northamptonshire.



Towns include the county seat of Cambridge.


Artists and Architects
The landscape gardener Capability Brown was buried at Fenstanton in 1783.

Capability Brown



Famous People
Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon in 1599.

Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell



The economist John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge in 1883.

John Maynard Keynes



Born in Vienna in 1889, the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein died in Cambridge in 1951. He first stayed there in 1911 returning to settle in the university town in 1929 and becoming a British citizen in 1939. He is buried at the Ascension Burial Ground in the town.



What is your aim in philosophy?
To show the fly the way out of the fly-bottle.

Philosophische Untersuchungen (1953)



Nobel Prize Winners


Chemistry
The physical chemist Ronald G.W. Norrish was born in Cambridge in 1897 and died there in 1978. In 1967 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Sir George Porter and the German Manfred Eigen for their development of the flash photolysis technique.



The New Zealand-born pioneer nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford died in Cambridge in 1937. In 1908 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. His ashes were interred at Westminster Abbey.

Ernest Rutherford
Famous people buried at Westminster Abbey



The physicist Francis Aston died in Cambridge in 1945. In 1922 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his invention of the mass spectograph.



The chemist Sir Harold W. Kroto was born as Harold Krotoschiner in Wisbech in 1939. In 1996 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with the Americans Robert F. Curl junior and Richard E. Smalley.

Sir Harold W. Kroto



The chemist Sir Alexander Todd died in Cambridge in 1997. In 1957 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

Sir Alexander Todd



In 1997 the molecular biologist Sir John C. Kendrew also died in Cambridge. In 1962 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with his colleague the Austrian-born Max Perutz who had emigrated to England in 1936 and become a British citizen.

Sir John C. Kendrew



Economics
The economist James Meade died in Cambridge in 1995. In 1977 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Economics with the Swedish scientist Bertil Ohlin.

James Meade



The economist Sir Richard Stone died in Cambridge in 1991. In 1984 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics.



Physics
The physicist Sir George Paget Thomson was born in Cambridge in 1892. In 1937 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with the American Clinton Davisson for their discovery of electron diffraction by crystals. The son of the Nobel Prize Winner Sir J.J. Thomson, he died in Cambridge in 1975. The Thomsons were one of only 5 fathers and sons to have received the award.

Sir George Paget Thomson The Thomson Family



His father and one of the pioneers of nuclear physics, the physicist Sir J.J. Thomson died in Cambridge in 1940. His ashes were interred at Westminster Abbey. In 1906 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his revolutionary discovery of the electron. The Thomsons were one of only 5 fathers and sons to have received the award.

Sir J.J. Thomson Sir J.J. Thomson The Thomson Family
Famous people buried at Westminster Abbey



The physicist Sir John Cockcroft died in Cambridge in 1967. In 1951 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with the Irishman E.T.S. Walton for their study of alpha particles. He is buried at the Ascension Burial Ground in the town.

Sir John Cockcroft



The physicist Sir James Chadwick died in Cambridge in 1974. In 1935 he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the neutron.

Sir James Chadwick



The physicist and radio astronomer Sir Martin Ryle died in Cambridge in 1984. In 1974 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Antony Hewish for their research in radio astrophysics.



Physiology or Medicine
The biochemist Sir Frederick Hopkins died in Cambridge in 1947. In 1929 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with the Dutch scientist Christiaan Eijkman for his research into vitamins. He was father-in-law to the writer J.B. Priestley. He is buried at the Ascension Burial Ground in the town.



The physiologist Sir Henry Dale died in Cambridge in 1968. In 1936 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with the German Otto Loewi for research into nerve impulses.

Sir Henry Dale



The physiologist A.V. Hill died in Cambridge in 1977. In 1922 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with the German Otto Meyerhof for his research into heat production in muscles.

A.V. Hill



In 1977 the physiologist Edgar D. Adrian also died in Cambridge. In 1932 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Sir Charles Sherrington for their research into neurons.

Edgar D. Adrian



The physiologist Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin died in Cambridge in 1998. In 1963 he had shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Sir Andrew Huxley and the Australian Sir John Eccles for their research into nerve membranes.

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin




Places of Interest


Cathedrals and Abbeys
Ely Cathedral

Ely Cathedral in 1796 Ely Cathedral in 1797
Ely Cathedral in 1926
Ely Cathedral




Universities
Cambridge University is England's second oldest after Oxford. Peterhouse College opened in 1284.

Cambridge University




Royal Consorts and Heirs

House of Tudor
Henry VIII's first wife Catherine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Castle in 1536 and was buried at Peterborough Cathedral. She had married Henry's elder brother Prince Arthur in 1501 but he died the following year. In 1509 she married Henry VIII giving birth to the future Mary I in 1516. She remained Queen until 1533 when Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn in frustration at the Catholic Church in Rome not granting him a divorce. This was to lead to the Reformation when Henry broke with the Pope and set about creating the Church of England.

Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII




Writers and Poets

The poet William Whitehead was born in 1715 in Cambridge. He was appointed Poet Laureate in 1757, succeeding Colley Cibber. On Whitehead's death in 1785 Thomas Warton was awarded the post.

William Whitehead
The poet laureates



The philosopher and writer William Godwin was born at Wisbech in 1756. He was married to the writer Mary Wollstonecraft and their daughter was Mary Shelley.

William Godwin


Love of our country is another of those specious illusions, which have been invented by impostors in order to render the multitude the blind instruments of their crooked designs.
An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Political Justice (1793)

It is a most mistaken way of teaching men to feel they are brothers, by imbuing their mind with perpetual hatred.

An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Political Justice (1793)

What can be more shameless than for society to make an example of those whom she has goaded to the breach of order, instead of amending her own institutions which, by straining order into tyranny, produced the mischief?

An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Political Justice (1793)




In 1895 the novelist L.P. Hartley was born as Leslie Poles Hartley in the village of Whittlesey near Peterborough (then in Northamptonshire).

L.P. Hartley

The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there.
The Go-Between - Opening line of novel (1953)

It all began with the weather defying me.

First line of chapter 3

The thermometer stood at eighty-four: that was satisfactory but I was confident it could do better.
First line of chapter 7

Meteorologically Saturday was a disappointing day;...
First line of chapter 11



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